Just for fun.
Find and identify the bird(s) in this picture. It was taken in my backyard a couple of days ago.
Just for fun.
Find and identify the bird(s) in this picture. It was taken in my backyard a couple of days ago.
[Updated December 10 2014 based on feedback. Additional links on the Palila have been added.]
A recent week-long vacation took us to the Hawaiian Islands (October 26 to November 1). Having previously been to the island of Kauai at the old end of the island chain, we decided to try the island of Hawaii at the other, newer end. To prevent confusion with the state of Hawaii this is frequently referred to simply as the Big Island. I had my Panasonic FZ-200 camera along to document the trip.
On the last full day, I signed up for a Rainforest and Dryforest Birding Adventure tour — a day-long outing put on by a tour group called Hawaii Forest and Trail. They do many other tours too that are not just for birding. The rest of our group, for instance, went on the Mauna Kea Summit and Stars Adventure trip which takes you up to the volcano’s summit to watch a sunset.
Our trip set out in search of 2 specific target birds. In the dry forests on the side of Mauna Kea we would be looking for the Palila, a critically endangered species which lives in a single forested area on the volcano’s slopes. This forested area is the source of the māmane plant which the Palila has adapted to be able to eat and which is toxic to other birds.
In the second part of our excursion, we would travel to some wetter forests where we hoped to find different endemic, the ʻAkiapōlāʻau.
While we were, unfortunately, unable to track down the ʻAkiapōlāʻau, we were extremely successful with the Palila and the rest of this article describes that encounter.
First, a quick note and the Palila habitat on the slopes of Mauna Kea.
Mauna Kea is still considered to be an active, though dormant, volcano and even though it has not erupted in 4600 years there is still the slim possibility that a lava flow from a future eruption could wipe out this habitat leading to their extinction. While this might make for a good story in Hollywood, the reality is that there are much more dangerous risks that could well see the Palila gone from these slopes long before they are touched by lava. Forest fires, for instance could, in the right conditions, very quickly destroy the Palila habitat. Other threats include introduced species of plants, animals, insects and disease. The Hawaiian government’s Mauna Kea Forest Restoration Project has lots of good information here. Finally, according to BirdLife International, the endangered status of the Palila in recent years is also related to rapid population declines as a result of drought that has affected its primary source of food, the māmane plant.
The plan was simple. We parked in an area accessed by a hunter access road on the lower slopes of Mauna Kea. The trip organizers allowed for up to 4 hours climbing the slopes to find and view the Palila after which time, win or lose, we would head for the second location.
Here is a picture taken near our parking spot and at the lower edge of the area expected to contain the Palila. Note the sparse trees on fairly open grassland.
Here is a second shot taken as we climbed a little further up the Mauna Kea slope.
According to the guide, on one recent trip they spent most of the allocated time hunting for the Palila and only found them as they were about to quit and move on. We got lucky and found one after about 15 minutes with another pair showing up shortly thereafter. In fact it appears that we had found a family unit with male, female and juvenile foraging together. The juvenile showed typical begging behaviour with fluttering wings and an adult was doing the foraging and feeding of the juvenile though regurgitation as described, for instance, in a Palila wikipedia article. This article says that both adults will regurgitate to feed the young in our case the male was feeding while the female stood guard, presumably looking for predators. If the wikipedia article is correct then perhaps they take turns feeding and guarding or perhaps the guarding behaviour only happens occasionally, for instance when a large number of two-legged, orange-vested homo sapiens are also foraging in the area.
If we only consider predators seen historically before the arrival of man on the islands the most likely candidates would probably have been the Hawaiian Short-eared Owl (Pueo) and the Hawaiian Hawk (ʻIo). It is not clear what threat we birders posed to the Palila though it was clearly not enough to drive them away. Whether or not the female would have stood guard where and when she did if we had not be there is unclear.
As mentioned earlier, introduced predators are currently one of the Palila’s biggest threats. These include feral cats and black rats (see for instance this article on the Palila from BirdLife International (birdlife.org). Mosquitos transmitting avian malaria have also proved very dangerous to the endemic populations of birds. They are also threatened by habitat degradation especially if it affects the growth and spreading of their primary food sources, the peas from the seed pods of the māmane plant and certain types of caterpillar. Introduced mammals such as sheep and pigs are particularly bad for disturbing the forest plants. Through hunting and fencing the threat of these has been reduced.
Our first sighting of a Palila was that of an adult male who was processing a māmane pod in the middle of a bush that provided the bird with some protection. The following 7 pictures, shown in the order that they were taken, cover a period of about 9 seconds. All of these pictures were cropped from the original size of 4000 x 3000 down to about 1200 x 800. The displayed images below are shown at a resolution of 640 x 400 though the full-sized cropped images can be viewed clicking on the image and following the link back to Flickr.
The following is a short video that was taken starting 10 seconds after the last picture (above) was taken. You can hear the group leader describing the bird to some of the birders that were just then discovering it for the first time. Initially you can see the Palila alternating between working on the māmane pod and raising it’s head up to check its surroundings.
You can also hear the Palila in between the periods where it is working on the māmane pod and also after it appears to be done having released the māmane pod. Perhaps these calls were communications to the other family members that would be showing up in the seconds that followed the video. There may even have been a specific message to the juvenile that he (the adult male) was full and that it was time to eat. This might also explain why he dropped the pod. It’s not clear why they moved to a different location for the feeding. Perhaps it was because of our presence or perhaps because it is generally safer to keep moving.
Unfortunately there is a half minute gap between this series of pictures and the next series with adult feeding juvenile. The only thing that I recall from this period is that the juvenile and adult female arrived to join the adult male and then the female left again.
The second set of 7 images were taken over a period of 13 seconds starting 63 seconds after the last picture in the first set or about 38 seconds after the end of the short video. As mentioned, in these 38 missing seconds the male moved to a different perch and a juvenile and an adult female flew in to join the adult male. Only the juvenile stayed to be fed by the adult male while the female flew off to, it appears, stand guard (see the third sighting section below).
The sequence between the adult male and the juvenile clearly shows the begging behaviour as well as the regurgitation and transfer of food from adult to juvenile.
The final image was taken 5 seconds after the previous one and shows the juvenile left alone and somewhat hidden in the foliage while the adult male had moved on, perhaps to start a new cycle of processing māmane pods prior to the next feeding cycle at which point he would call the juvenile to join him there.
The third set of 5 pictures were taken over a period of 24 seconds starting 18 seconds after the last image in the second set.
The adult female Palila, which made a brief appearance off camera took up a position 100 feet or so from where the other two birds were positioned. Her perch at the top of a bare branch gave her good visibility. She chose a bush that kept all of the birders, which had broken into several groups by this time, on one side of her, perhaps in order to be able to see all of them at once without continually having to look in opposite directions. As the photos show, she still does look away from time to time, perhaps scanning for other possible threats. As mentioned previously, the two historic threats where probably the Hawaiian Short-eared Owl (Pueo) and the Hawaiian Hawk (‘Io). At this point in our trip we had already seen 5 of these owls hunting (one near where we found the Palila) and we had one unconfirmed hawk sighting.
I was impressed by the fact that both adult Palilas were caring for what was clearly a juvenile bird. The splitting of the task of feeing the young was split into roles of foraging and standing guard. It would have been nice to know if they switched roles from time to time. Many species, particularly migratory ones, leave their young to fend for themselves at a much younger age or only one of the adults take responsibility for the young.
I acquired my Panasonic FZ-200 camera to help with bird identification but on several occasions it has proven useful in seeing behaviours that I would never have noticed using just binoculars. The ability to capture large numbers of pictures and even videos with sound provides the opportunity to analyze different aspects of bird sightings that happen too quickly in the field.
It would seem that my camera is rapidly replacing my binoculars as my primary birding equipment. Here are some things that I might change in the future that might lead to better results:
It was a fun way to get introduced to a new bird and, while it took a lot of time post-processing, it was definitely more satisfying than a brief sighting and a simple pencil mark on a checklist.
The Palila article on Wikipedia.
The Palila Status at BirdLife International (birdlife.org).
The Mauna Kea Forest Restoration Project website from the Hawaiian state government has much more detailed and accurate information on current status and threats to the Palila.
The Facebook page for “A Paradise Lost”, an animated movie about the Palila directed by Laurie Sumiye.
Puzzlers were meant to be fun first and a challenge second. I realized that all of that decoding to get to the answer in the original Puzzler #7 – A Hawk by Any Other Name… may have discouraged some. So, here is a modified, more user friendly version of puzzler #7 with no decoding. Instead, I split the post into 2 pages with the answers in ungarbled English on page 2. So, without further ado, I present the new and improved puzzler #7.
In the table below there are some ‘old’ historical bird names for North American raptors that are no longer in common use and which you probably won’t find in modern bird books except perhaps as a historical aside.
In case you are not a bird nut, raptors include hawks, falcons, eagles, vultures and the like. You may have heard of some of these ‘old’ names and know what they refer to. I probably would have got 3 maybe 4 out of 10 had I had to solve this myself.
|Sparrow Hawk or Sparrowhawk|
|Chicken Hawk or Chickenhawk|
|Squirrel Hawk or Squirrelhawk|
We spent the past weekend on Saltspring Island. The front yard feeders where we were staying attracted a good crowd of birds about 90% of which were Dark-eyed Juncos. One particular bird was there most of the time and sported some discolouration on its head which I attribute to Leucism. The first two pictures are views from left and right showing that the discolouration is not symmetric.
The following view with the junco looking almost directly at the camera also clearly shows the left-right asymmetry.
There was also a small group of American Goldfinches that showed up occasionally. Some of them posed nicely for the camera too:
The back yard had some bird activity as well including a Chestnut-backed Chickadee, a Fox Sparrow and an American Robin.
The first time that we saw a Black Skimmer was in 2001. I was a novice birder and, while we had a copy of the Sibley Guide to Birds, we had never read it from cover to cover and so were unaware that a bird like the Black Skimmer existed. Nonetheless, there they were, 5 odd-looking birds, vaguely tern-like, sitting in the sand on the beach not far from the wharf in downtown Santa Barbara, California.
Since we rarely left home without Sibley, we quickly identified them as Black Skimmers. Over the next few years, we saw them frequently, usually at the same Santa Barbara location, in numbers ranging from a single bird to as many as 80.
Several Black Skimmer pictures recently showed up in my mailbox for identification taken by the spouse of one of JC’s work-colleagues while on a cruise along the coast of California. Seeing the pictures reminded me of our own encounters and of some of the bird’s more interesting and peculiar aspects.
The following is one of the pictures from my inbox showing a pair of skimmers close up. From a distance they may look somewhat tern-like however up close there are several things that I find stand out.
First, it looks like they have no eyes which are just well hidden by the black cap. Second, what appears as a forked tail on the right bird is just its extremely long wings crossing. Finally, the bill, unique to skimmers, has a lower mandible that is longer than the upper and is hinged so that it can open wide. This facilitates the skimmers’ unique method of feeding by flying just above the water surface with the lower bill “skimming” the water (see picture).When the bill touches a fish or other prey it snaps shut. This tactile hunting method works well with the skimmers preference for nocturnal hunting when their prey are more likely to be near the surface of the water.
The Black Skimmer has some additional surprises. It is the only bird known to have a vertical pupil like that of a cat. This is thought to be useful for protecting their eyes in the bright environment of the sandy beaches where they spend the day resting while giving them good nocturnal vision while hunting at night.
Another unexpected behaviour of the skimmer is its unique way of resting during the day (picture below) that has probably led more than a few observers into thinking that they were looking a dead or dying bird.
The Black Skimmer, being a social bird, is frequently found in colonies (often with gulls and terns).
The Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger) is widespread, found throughout a large part of North and South America. In North America they are almost exclusively coastal, ranging North to around San Francisco in the West and Boston in the East. In South America the follow the coast to Chile in the west. In the east, however, they are not just coastal but are found throughout the Amazon Basin fishing the rivers.
Two other skimmer species, one in Africa (R. flavirostris) and one in India (R. albicollis), join the Black Skimmer as the only three skimmer species in the Family Rynchopidae. Their closest relatives are found in the families of birds that include gulls, terns, alcids (puffins, murres, etc.), skuas and a few others without representation in North America.
One final Black Skimmer surprise. While I don’t recall having ever heard the Black Skimmer call during our many encounters, apparently it resembles the bark of a dog. You be the judge. Here are some recordings that I found on Xeno-Canto from different parts of their range (each link opens a new page/window at the Xeno-Canto site):
Brazil, Mato Grosso do Sul: Black Skimmer
USA, Florida: Black Skimmer colony (300+ birds)
Brazil, Amazonas: Flight calls of two Black Skimmers defending their nest
USA: New Jersey: Black Skimmers
The Black Skimmer is definitely one of my favourite birds to watch. It has more unique aspects than any other North American birds that I can think of. While not quite the bird equivalent of the platypus in terms of odd construction, it is a slam-dunk for inclusion in the category of Cool Birds!
Here are some other good Black Skimmer resources to check out:
Dan Pancamo’s Black Skimmer picture set on Flickr. It includes a large number of excellent pictures with chicks and juveniles such as the one on the left.
Gochfeld, Michael and Joanna Burger. 1994. Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/108
I found this hour long online movie about bird migration across the Gulf of Mexico a couple of days ago. It does a good job of documenting the amazing migration that many North American birds go through each Spring and Fall. Birds as small as the Ruby-throated Hummingbird fly non-stop from the Yucatan to the Gulf coast of the US on their way to their breeding grounds further North, a trip that can take most of a day and cover 600 or more miles. The fall sees a similar migration in the opposite direction back to the wintering grounds in Central and South America.
Among my favourite birds to watch in flight are the swifts. They are powerful fliers that most people will only ever see on the wing since they cannot perch like the swallows that they superficially resemble (they are more closely related to hummingbirds). A friend of mine recently brought a story a from Discover Magazine (This Bird Can Fly for Six Months Without Landing Once) to my attention. Equipping the some Alpine Swifts with motion sensing equipment, a group of Swiss researchers were able to show that the birds, which breed in the mountains from southern Europe to the Himalayas, can stay aloft for months at a time during their overwinter migration in southern Africa.
If you read my previous post on Human Related Bird-mortality Estimates, that showed that the biggest bird-killer was the feral house-cat, you might find this article, posted on National Geographic NewsWatch, interesting: Hope on the Horizon for ‘Free Roaming Cat Conundrum?’
The September 2013 issue of the Canadian online journal Avian Conservation & Biology features a number of short research articles associated with Quantifying Human-related Mortality of Birds in Canada.
Individual articles deal with the contributions from specific industries and activities including:
All of the articles can be freely viewed online or by downloading a PDF version.
So, which one of the above categories do you think is the biggest contributor towards bird mortality?
The final article, A Synthesis of Human-related Avian Mortality in Canada, puts all the different sources of bird mortality into context. Table 3 in this article shows bird mortality estimates separated by source and split into the categories of landbird, seabird, shorebird, waterbird and waterfowl.
And the biggest bird killer? It is, by a long shot, the house cat with an estimated 135 million birds (almost exclusively landbirds) of which 80 million are attributed to feral cats and the remaining 55 million to the domestic variety. Compare these numbers to the total of 186 million dead birds per year and we have house cats killing over 70% of all birds killed from human-related causes.
There’s a whole lot of interesting information in this issue. Well worth a read.
Now I have read that Marsh Wrens like to sing from a prominent perch such as the top of a cattail. You can see this behaviour depicted, for example, in the drawing by John Audubon from around 1830. You would think then, with all the chattering, that I would have left with a picture or two. That day, however, I struck out. The wrens dove for cover before I could get close enough for a good shot.
Admittedly, I’m not one to stand around waiting for a bird to appear so my lack of success was partly my own fault. Besides, the male bird’s singing, heard almost constantly at that time of year, is distinctive enough for identification and counting.
On one of my regular trips to Colony Farm Regional Park on August 22 I finally found a cooperative Marsh Wren.
Not far from the pump-house I came across a small brown bird in the middle of the gravel path taking a dust bath. My first thought was a juvenile Marsh Wren which I confirmed a few days later with the help of an online bird identification forum. It clearly spotted me but seemed confident enough (the boldness of youth perhaps) that as long as I kept my distance, it would not run for cover.
It’s movements were incredibly swift and it could go from one resting position watching me to another in a fraction of a second with. The following 4 sequences of pictures were taken in burst mode with 1/5 of a second between consecutive frames. The first 3-frame sequence, for instance covered a period of just 0.4 seconds during which the wren went from sitting facing right, to sitting facing left following a roll-manoeuver onto its side.
In the next 1.0 second sequence the wren finishes a roll, watches me for almost half a second and then goes into another roll with my final image catching it just when it was on its back.
Here is another 0.6 second clip showing a sequence of watch – roll – watch – roll.
Lastly, one final 0.6 second sequence of watching with a 90 degree twist.
The little wren was definitely cute and put on a good show. In retrospect, I should have used the camera to create a short video to show its incredibly quick movements. I still want to get pictures of an adult Marsh Wren though this may have to wait for 2014.
The Marsh Wren is definitely an interesting bird to watch and to listen to. As a song bird, some western individuals have been known to learn and sing over 200 songs which are learned from other wrens and, in some cases, from other species as well. Here is a recording that I made on June 5 of a duet between a Marsh Wren and a Gray Catbird. If you listen carefully, in the last 10 seconds you can hear the catbird mimicking some of the wren’s song phrases. Note that this recording was made almost the exact location where I photographed this immature wren which could conceivably be the singing wren’s offspring.
If you read up on the Marsh Wren species the are a few behaviours that the species is known for. One is polygyny and it is not uncommon for a single male to breed with multiple females. During nest building, the male may actually make as many as 10 nests even though a courting female will ultimately only choose one. Of course, if the wren takes more than one mate one is clearly not enough. The remainder go unused though some speculate that they may get for refuge by fledged birds during a storm or if the first nest fails.
A second behaviour that the Marsh Wren is known for is egg destruction. Both male and female birds will destroy eggs and even hatchlings in nests close to their territory if given the chance. This includes eggs in other Marsh Wren nests. This is undoubtedly an evolutionary strategy that helps remove competition for food and nesting sites.
This behaviour, not unexpectedly, has earned the Marsh Wren several enemies. Two of the principal ones are the Red-winged and Yellow-headed Blackbirds that frequently inhabit the same types of environments during breeding season. The larger blackbirds will frequently chase the wrens trying to drive them out of the area. There are reports of Yellow-headed blackbirds hopping on wren nests to destroy them or blocking the entrance to a nest to prevent a female Marsh Wren from returning to their brood.
The Marsh Wren is a bird with lots of personality that is definitely one of my favourites.
 Kroodsma, Donald E. and Jared Verner. 1997. Marsh Wren (Cistothorus palustris), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/308; doi:10.2173/bna.308