Author Archives: KevinHHood

Link

Through a Facebook friend I found this link to a New Scientist article suggesting the medication for Diabetes may help slow the progression of PD.

We may finally be able to slow Parkinson’s with a diabetes drug

The drug, FDA-approved since 2005, is called exenatide and is used to treat type 2 diabetes. It works by protecting neurones from toxins. One potential downside is that the drug is currently injected twice daily though a once-weekly injection was approved in 2012. The major side-effects appear to be gastrointestinal.

If I have a major criticism with the article it is with the title which implies that there are no current ways to slow PD progression. In fact exercise, diet, social interaction and at least one drug, Azilect, are all known to or suspected of slowing PD progression to varying degrees.

 

Sunday at Bowen Park

It’s been pretty quiet on the birding front but I decided to go on the Nanaimo/Parksville Sunday bird walk to Bowen Park. In the heart of Nanaimo, this park is a jewel with most of its 36 hectares undeveloped.

The walk starts in the parking lot, near the first hole of Nanaimo’s Disk Golf course where we quickly spotted a Brown Creeper while waiting for the group to assemble.  This one was quite vocal (for a Creeper) emitting a double note call at fairly regular intervals making us wonder if it was a young bird.

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It was pretty quiet today.  There were no Starlings or House Sparrows which helped keep the BQI (Bird Quality Index) high.

Shortly after we started down the birding trail we discovered a fairly large paper wasp nest. What I liked was the colour and pattern — different from the grey nests I am used to. Perhaps mocha is this year’s colour in paper-wasp real-estate.P1180565

A bit further, someone noticed an interesting spider web hanging between trees. With a bit of light that made it through the thick forest canopy it looked a bit like a suspended compact disk.

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Next along the way was a Pacific-slope Flycatcher, making short foraging flights, returning to the same perch. He was quite cooperative, hanging out a few meters from the path so that everyone could get a good look or take a few pictures.

Pacific-slope Flycatcher

Pileated Woodpeckers frequently are oblivious to us birder-humans as we take shot after shot while they peck away at the trees.  This female was pecking at various trees, occasionally do light renovations to existing holes. With the dark under-canopy, the camera shutter speed was in the 1/100 to 1/200 range so you had to snap your shot during the bird’s brief bouts of pounding or the image would be heavily blurred.

Female Piliated Woodpeckerfullsizeoutput_1f31

We saw a Barred Owl along the way but getting a good image would have been a challenge so I didn’t even try. The following two owls, however, cooperated with my picture taking:

Wood-peckers.

Almost at the end of our outing, we found our ‘Bird of the Day’ — an American Dipper. It was hanging out in a shaded spot at the edge of the Millstone River. The BQI definitely jumped when we found this bird.

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That was it. About three hours at Bowen Park. Total species count: 25.

This walk was organized by the Nanaimo Backyard Wildbird and Nature Store. They can be contacted for more information on future Sunday or Tuesday outings.

A Mite-y Big Problem at Flycatcher Nest

I dislike unhappy stories and enjoy writing about them even less. However, I have to remind myself that not everything is about the birds — Mother Nature is a much more clever scriptwriter than that.

I mentioned in my last post that there were some moving specks on the vinyl siding behind the nest that I suspected might be some kind of bird mite. Here is what my research found.

At the end I share my opinions as to the effect that the mites had on the nestling development and their departure from the nest.

Visual Evidence of Mites

I went back and looked at video footage to look for evidence of moving specks which I would later confirm to be mites. It turns out that a good way to see them is to fast-forward the video and watch closely — the mites are easy to see when moving, especially those on the light coloured vinyl siding.

I found the first mite evidence in the July 19 webcam footage — (hatch-day + 8). On subsequent days, the quantity of mites increasing dramatically, dare I say ‘exponentially’, until the three nestlings left the nest on July 23. While the initial mites were only seen while moving on the vinyl siding, by July 21 large immobile clusters of mites could be seen on the outdoor light fixture.  Here is a picture taken on July 22 with my Panasonic FX-200 camera:

Mites on the Light Fixture

Mites grouping on the outdoor light fixture.

The out-of-focus mites are still visible on the siding behind the nest. More obvious are the the brown patches on the black edge of the light fixture in which individual mites are easily visible. The reddish-brown colour comes from mites that have all taken some blood, probably from one of the nestlings (’empty’ unfed mites are light coloured).

To study the mites more closely, I ran a lint roller along the edge of the light fixture. This was surprisingly effective at removing all of the mites in its path. The sticky lint-roller paper immobilized most of the mites however there were still a number of wandering mites so I sprayed the sample with a mixture of bleach and water to make sure the mites were dead before the sample came into the house.

To demonstrate the mite size and numbers, I took a picture showing a section of lint-roller paper with mites next to a Canadian dime:

Mite Sample

Mite sample acquired using a lint roller.

A dime is about 1.8 cm in diameter so I estimate the density of mites in the high-density area along the top of the sample to be about 200 per square centimetre. After the nestlings had left the nest, there was extensive coverage of the light as well as 4 or 5 patches of packed mites on the siding. Estimating the visible coverage at around 200 square centimetres that would mean about 40,000 mites. This is just the visible areas and the hidden areas on the light fixture. Any mites on the nest or the nestlings are not included though one might expect both to be heavily infected. My best estimate for the total mite count is somewhere between 50,000 and over 100,000.

We have a Wild M11 microscope which I used to get a better look at the mites. Using my iPhone camera, I was able to take some surprisingly good pictures. The following image was taken at the lowest (4X) magnification:

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The wire has a length of about 2.2 mm at this magnification (calibrated with a plastic ruler) making the mites’ length about 0.6 mm. The next image was made at the next highest magnification (10X).  Unfed mites are clear so this looks like a mite that has fed on blood — nestling blood most likely.

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Identification

The two most common North American bird mites are the Northern Fowl Mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) and the Chicken Mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) which goes by several other names such as the Red Mite, Red Fowl Mite and Red Poultry Mite. Both are of great interest to the poultry industry because of the costly damage they can do. Both can infect wild bird species. From various sources I have read, I concluded that the flycatcher nest was probably infected with the Northern Fowl Mite.

 

The best reference that I found summarizing issues around bird mites and humans comes from a 2010 document from the PennState, Department of Entomology series of short Entomological Notes simply titled BIRD MITES (accessed July 28, 2017).  Below, I quote a few of the more relevant paragraphs and highlight important sections that helped me handle the flycatcher mite infestation:

Bird mites are very tiny, flattened parasitic arthropods in the order Acari. They belong to two closely related genera in two families; Dermanyssus species in Dermanyssidae (Fig. 1), and Ornithonyssus species in Macronyssidae. Bird mites have piercing mouthparts that enable them to take blood meals from their bird hosts. Although the mites will inadvertently bite people, they cannot reproduce without their bird hosts.

DESCRIPTION

Bird mites have five stages: egg, larva, protonymph, deutonymph and adult. The larvae have three pair of legs; the nymphs and adults have four pair. Adults are about 0.7 to 1 mm in length and are just barely visible to the naked eye. Unless they are moving, they are extremely difficult to see. The color is translucent white until they take a blood meal after which the mites are reddish mahogany to brown. Mite eggs are white, oval and cannot be seen without the aid of magnification. The same applies to the larvae and nymphs.

LIFE HISTORY/BEHAVIOR

Most bird mite species can complete development in five to twelve days with optimal temperatures and host presence. This short life cycle makes it is possible for mite populations to attain tens of thousands of mites in bird nests during the rearing of young birds. If the population is too large (or if the fledglings vacate the nest or perish), the mites will migrate in mass to locate an alternative host. It is during this migration that mites can and do enter the living quarters of people. Some mites (i.e. Dermanyssus gallinae, the chicken mite) can survive for several months without taking a blood meal; the northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum, for several weeks. However, the mites do not appear to survive for more than several days in the reduced humidity (<35%) environs typically found in air-conditioned or dehumidified homes.

MANAGEMENT

Birds should be discouraged from building nests in or adjacent to buildings. Close all openings large enough for birds to enter attics, sof ts and similar areas. Install hardware cloth, sheet metal, or other materials to prevent birds from nesting and roosting on porches, breezeways and other exterior sites. Disrupt nest-building efforts by removing partially completed nests in shrubbery and on air conditioners and windowsills.

If mites are detected in the structure, locate the bird nest source. Remove the nest.

My take home message was to monitor the mites both around and away from the nest and be prepared to remove the nest and sanitize the nest area once the nestlings had left the nest to prevent the host-less mites from moving inside the house looking for new targets. I read some accounts of the problems that resulted from houses that became infected by bird mites (readily available on the websites of many extermination companies) and they definitely made me want to keep the mites outside.

Of Mites and Nestlings

Beside the visual evidence of an exploding mite population, the nestlings became increasingly restless as the quantity of mites increased. Frequent episodes of scratching were noticeable on the webcam videos.

My personal belief is that the nestlings left the nest early, before the were ready to fledge, in large part because of their discomfort from the mites. I know that one nestling perished because I found the body on the morning of July 24. The last sighting of a nestling was on the morning of July 25. The last sighting of the female adult sticking close to its foraging area near our house was on July 25.

One final reason why I do not think that there were any surviving nestlings was the presence of a domestic cat nearby. The day that I found the dead nestling, it was lying in our driveway when I returned home from some errands. I have seen the cat, before and since, in and around our yard. An unfledged nestling hopping in the bushes would have had little chance of avoiding the feline if it were spotted.

 

 

References

I have listed below some of the interesting references that I found online.

[1] This 2005 reference contains some good high-level information on mites: Common Lice and Mites of Poultry: Identification and Treatment.

[2] One of the best short summaries on bird mites that I have found: UW Madison Department of Entomology information sheet.

[3] Good reference from Iowa State University: Bird-Mites.

[4] A good 2014 review article: Mites and birds: diversity, parasitism and coevolution.

[5] A 2014 research article looking at some of the relationships between birds and mites: Repeatability of Feather Mite Prevalence and Intensity in Passerine Birds.
[6] Slides from a presentation showing the Poultry Industry’s views on Northern Fowl Mites.
[7] Washington State University research proposal and status: ORIGIN AND SPREAD OF THE NORTHERN FOWL MITE: A LANDSCAPE GENETICS APPROACH.
[8] Google Books textbook chapter: Global Diversity of Mites.
[9] Countryside Daily article with some information that I did not find elsewhere: Chicken Mites & Northern Fowl Mites: Controlling Infestations.

Pacific-slope Nestlings 10 Days Old

July 21: As of yesterday the Pacific-slope Flycatcher nestlings are 10 days old. Their eyes are opening and feathers are starting to show. They also appear much more restless than in previous days and I’m a little worried that one might fall out of the nest. It’s more than 6 feet down to the concrete steps so a fall would, I imagine, be fatal.

The adult birds spend most of their time foraging and only at the nest for a few seconds every few minutes. So, I thought that I’d try to get a better between-visits picture of the nestlings with my Panasonic FZ-200 camera whose 24x optical zoom lets me fill the image whereas the Logitech 920 webcam, used for my videos, has no optical zoom so cropping is the only way to “zoom in” and that results in a lower resolution image. Here is the best picture that I was able to take:

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I had just focussed on the nestlings, who were alone in the nest, when the adult male flycatcher appeared in the foreground. Because of the low-light I was using a large aperture with poor depth of focus which put the adult bird slightly out of focus. It’s a nice subtle effect.

The camera picture also highlights something else not so nice. If you look closely at the vinyl siding behind the nest you can see a number of small black specks. Reviewing the webcam videos shows that these specks are actually moving around. They are concentrated around the nest suggesting that they are some form of parasite associated with nest and birds. I reviewed previous days’ videos but July 21 was the first day that the specks were visible. My suspicion is that they are bird mites which Doctor Google tells me would not be a good thing. More research needed.

Pacific-slope Flycatcher Nest

June 26: This was the day that we noticed the nest being built on top of the light in our front entry way. Our first thought was a swallow because we have a lot of them flying around our neighbourhood though most would have nested weeks earlier.

June 28: We noticed a bird sitting on the nest so I got out my camera and we discovered a Pacific-slope Flycatcher (whose 4-letter species ID is PSFL) sitting on the nest. Here is the picture that I took:

PSFC Nest P1180287

Consulting with Birds of North America Online (BNA-online) I discovered that first broods occur in April or May but some pairs will attempt a second nest around June or July. This was clearly round 2 for these birds.

June 30: I got up on a step-stool, held my iPhone 4s above the nest and took a picture:

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The PSFL was sitting on 3 eggs. Consulting BNA-online again I found out that the most common number of eggs is 4 followed by 3 so we might have a full nest or there may be more to come.

July 2: Only 2 days after the first picture, I took a second and discovered that there were still 3 eggs.

July 5: Another 3 days and there were still only 3 eggs to the bird sitting on the nest was probably incubating the eggs. BNA-online indicated typical incubation periods of 13 to 16 days so, assuming that my first ‘egg picture’ indicated the start of incubation then we should expect the eggs to hatch between July 12 and 15.

July 11: A picture from my iPhone shows that the eggs have hatched:

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The three ‘grubs’ in the nest look pretty helpless so they must have hatched quite recently.  I decided to call July 11 hatch-day 0.

Here is my first video of the adults coming and going, bringing food to the nestlings.

There will be many more videos and pictures to come as the nestlings grow up and fledge. I just hope that they all make it to fly away risking the odds of survival which are not in their favour — I’ve heard that only about one in ten birds survive a year after hatching.